References and Further Reading 1. Socrates' Argument In the early Platonic dialogue, Crito, Socrates makes a compelling argument as to why he must stay in prison and accept the death penalty, rather than escape and go into exile in another Greek city. He personifies the Laws of Athens, and, speaking in their voice, explains that he has acquired an overwhelming obligation to obey the Laws because they have made his entire way of life, and even the fact of his very existence, possible.
The concept of social contract theory is that in the beginning man lived in the state of nature. They had no government and there was no law to regulate them.
There were hardships and oppression on the sections of the society. To overcome from these hardships they entered into two agreements which are: By the first pact of unionis, people sought protection of their lives and property.
As, a result of it a society was formed where people undertook to respect each other and live in peace and harmony. By the second pact of subjectionis, people united together and pledged to obey an authority and surrendered the whole or part of their freedom and rights to an authority.
The authority guaranteed everyone protection of life, property and to a certain extent liberty.
Thus, they must agree to establish society by collectively and reciprocally renouncing the rights they had against one another in the State of Nature and they must imbue some one person or assembly of persons with the authority and power to enforce the initial contract.
In other words, to ensure their escape from the State of Nature, they must both agree to live together under common laws, and create an enforcement mechanism for the social contract and the laws that constitute it.
Thus, the authority or the government or the sovereign or the state came into being because of the two agreements. According to him, prior to Social Contract, man lived in the State of Nature.
Man lived in chaotic condition of constant fear. In order to secure self- protection and self-preservation, and to avoid misery and pain, man entered Page 2 of 7 into a contract.
As a result of this contract, the mightiest authority is to protect and preserve their lives and property. Subjects had no rights against the absolute authority or the sovereign and he is to be obeyed in all situations however bad or unworthy he might be.
However, Hobbes placed moral obligations on the sovereign who shall be bound by natural law. He therefore, reiterated that civil law is the real law because it is commanded and enforced by the sovereign. All men pursue only what they perceive to be in their own individually considered best interests.
They respond mechanistically by being drawn to that which they desire and repelled by that to which they are averse. In addition to being exclusively self-interested, Hobbes also argues that human beings are reasonable. They have in them the rational capacity to pursue their desires as efficiently and maximally as possible.
From these premises of human nature, Hobbes goes on to construct a provocative and compelling argument for which they ought to be willing to submit themselves to political authority.
He did this by imagining persons in a situation prior to the establishment of society, the State of Nature. It is in this way the natural law became a moral guide or directive to the sovereign for preservation of the natural rights of the subjects. For Hobbes all law is dependent upon the sanction of the sovereign.
All real law is civil law, the law commanded and Page 3 of 7 enforced by the sovereign and are brought into the world for nothing else but to limit the natural liberty of particular men, in such a manner, as they might not hurt but to assist one another and join together against a common enemy.
He advocated for an established order. Hence, Individualism, materialism, utilitarianism and absolutions are inter-woven in the theory of Hobbes. According to him, man lived in the State of Nature, but his concept of the State of Nature is different as contemplated by Hobbesian theory.
It was reasonably good and enjoyable, but the property was not secure. In that state of nature, men had all the rights which nature could give them.
It was free from the interference of others. In that state of nature, all were equal and independent.
This does not mean, however, that it was a state of license. The State of Nature, although a state wherein there was no civil authority or government to punish people for transgressions against laws, was not a state without morality.
The State of Nature was pre-political, but it was not pre- moral. Persons are assumed to be equal to one another in such a state, and therefore equally capable of discovering and being bound by the Law of Nature. According to Locke, private property is created when a person mixes his labour with the raw materials of nature.
Given the implications of the Law of Nature, there are limits as to how much property one can own:The history of economic thought deals with different thinkers and theories in the subject that became He is considered one of the most significant philosophers of his era mainly for his critique of Thomas Hobbes' defense of absolutism in Leviathan () and of his social contract theory.
Locke believed that people contracted into. Therein, Locke imagined a pre-social world, the unhappy residents of which create a social contract. They would, he allowed, create a monarchy, but its task would be to execute the will of an elected legislature. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.
Need an account? Click here to sign up. Human nature refers to the distinguishing characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting —which humans tend to have naturally. The questions of whether there truly are fixed characteristics, what these natural characteristics are, and what causes them are among the oldest and most important questions in philosophy and .
Early modern philosophy in the Western world begins with thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes and René It is more precisely defined as the study of sensory or sensori and economic philosophies of Confucius, Sun Tzu, Chanakya, Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Taymiyyah, Machiavelli, Leibniz, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Adam.
However, social contract theory is rightly associated with modern moral and political theory and is given its first full exposition and defense by Thomas Hobbes.
After Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are the best known proponents of this enormously influential theory, which has been one of the most dominant theories within moral.