The problem here is who gets to define what such a threat is. The absence of any independent judicial process outside of the executive branch that can determine whether the rights of an American citizen can be stripped, including the condition of being considered innocent before being proved guilty amounts to an enormous increase in executive power that will likely survive the Obama Administration.
Many works of utopian literature offer detailed and practical descriptions of an ideal society, but usually include some fatal flaw that makes the establishment of such a society impossible. The book is narrated by a Portuguese traveler named Raphael Hythlodaeus, who criticizes the laws and customs of European states while admiring the ideal institutions which he observes during a five year sojourn on the island of Utopia.
Citizens hold property in common, and care is taken to teach everyone a trade from which he can make a living, so that there is no need for crime.
Agriculture is treated as a science and taught to children as part of their school curriculum; every citizen spends some of his life working on a farm. The people live in 54 cities, separated from each other by a distance of at least 24 miles.
The rural population lives in communal farmhouses scattered through the countryside. Everyone works only six hours a day; this is sufficient because the people are industrious and do not require the production of useless luxuries for their consumption.
A body of wise and educated representatives deliberates on public affairs, and the country is governed by a prince, selected from among candidates chosen by the people.
The prince is elected for life, but can be removed from office for tyranny. All religions are tolerated and exist in harmony; atheism is not permitted since, if a man does not fear a god of some kind, he will commit evil acts and weaken society.
Utopia rarely sends its citizens to warbut hires mercenaries from among its warlike neighbors, deliberately sending them into danger in the hope that the more belligerent populations of all surrounding countries will be gradually eliminated. It was not untilsixteen years after More's execution as a traitor, that it was first published in England as an English translation.
Although some readers have regarded Utopia as a realistic blueprint for a working nation, More likely intended it as a satireallowing him to call attention to European political and social abuses without risking censure by the king. The similarities to the ideas later developed by Karl Marx are evident, but More was a devout Roman Catholic and probably used monastic communalism as his model.
The politics of Utopia have been seen as influential to the ideas of Anabaptism, Mormonismand communism. Although he may not have founded the genre of utopian and dystopian fiction, More certainly popularized it. Authors of utopian fiction are able to explore some of the problems raised by utopian concepts and to develop interesting consequences.
Many works make use of an outsider, a time-traveler or a foreigner, who observes the features of the society and describes them to the reader. Utopianism Utopian thought is born from the premise that through reason and intelligencehumankind is capable of creating an ideal society in which every individual can achieve fulfillment without infringing on the happiness and well-being of the other members of society.
It includes the consideration of moralityethicspsychologyand social and political philosophy.
Utopian thinking is generally confined to physical life on earth, although it may include the preparation of the members of society for a perceived afterlife.
It invariably includes criticism of the current state of society and seeks ways to correct or eliminate abuses. Utopianism is characterized by tension between philosophical ideals and the practical realities of society, such as crime and immorality; there is also a conflict between respect for individual freedom and the need to maintain order.
Utopian thinking implies a creative process that challenges existing concepts, rather than an ideology or justification for a belief system which is already in place. During the nineteenth century, thinkers such as Henri Saint-SimonCharles Fourierand Etienne Cabet in France, and Robert Owen in England popularized the idea of creating small, experimental communities to put philosophical ideals into practice.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels recognized that utopianism offered a vision for a better future, a vision that contributed much to Marxism, but they also criticized utopian writers' lack of a wider understanding of social and political realities which could contribute to actual political change.
Utopianism is considered to originate in the imaginative capacity of the subconscious mind, which is able to transcend conscious reality by projecting images of hopes, dreams, and desires.
Utopian ideas, though they may never be fully realized, play an important role in bringing about positive social change. They allow thinkers to distance themselves from the existing reality and consider new possibilities. The optimism that a better society can be achieved provides motivation and a focal point for those involved in bringing about social or political change.
Types of Utopia Economic Utopias The harsh economic conditions of the nineteenth century and the social disruption created by the development of commercialism and capitalism led several writers to imagine economically utopian societies.
Some were characterized by a variety of socialist ideas: One such utopia was described in Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward. Another socialist utopia was William Morris ' News from Nowhere, written partially in criticism of the bureaucratic nature of Bellamy's utopia.
Capitalist utopias, such as the one portrayed in Robert A. Political and Historical Utopias Political utopias are ones in which the government establishes a society that is striving toward perfection.
These utopias are based on laws administered by a government, and often restrict individualism when it conflicts with the primary goals of the society. Sometimes the state or government replaces religious and family values. A global utopia of world peace is often seen as one of the possible inevitable ends of history.In the books by George Orwell, Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, and Fahrenheit by Ray Bradbury all have a theme of dystopia.
Dystopia means an imperfect society. It is the opposite of utopia, which means a perfect society with no flaws.
In Huxley’s Brave New World, which is supposed to be a Utopia, equality is not present and this is what a utopia is supposed to be about. Within the social classes, the top ones still think of the lower ones as useless and basically inferior.
Brave New World uses science to create what they perceive to be a perfect society, a utopia of sorts. However they suppress natural human responses and condition the people to the nature of the “ideal” human, which some come to eventually understand, and wake up from.
Brave New World by Aldous Huxley - Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World is far more relevant today and has a higher possibility of actually transpiring in the near future compared to George Orwell’s May 08, · 3 In his foreword to Brave New World, Huxley regrets that he has offered the Savage only two alternatives: that of the insane utopia of Brave New World and that of the primitive Indian village in the Reservation.
If he were to rewrite the book, Huxley says, he would offer the Savage a third alternative. of the ruling class not only in and Brave New World, but also in Wa lden Two. Walden Two, a fictional ''utopia" was written by behavioral psychologist B.F.
Skinner as a "favorable depiction of an alternative society.".