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Among these, for both, was the exploration of society. While sociology has had other ends, moral and metaphysical, sociologists have always wanted to understand how society worked, to map its dimensions and then look into the big sectors and little crannies so mapped.
They ordinarily wanted to find things out rigorously and scientifically, and to develop general theories. But some sociologists have made it their main business to describe what has not yet been described, in the style of the ethnographer, to tell the big news, in the style of the journalist, combining these more or less with the desire for rigor and general theory.
They often choose research methods, for instance, that appear to have paid off for the natural sciences. They frequently choose research topics which are public concerns of the moment, especially as those are reflected in the allocation of research funds: These faddish tendencies are balanced by a continuing attention to, and respect for, traditional topics and styles of work.
The efforts and projects of photographers have been much more various. Think of a camera as a machine that records and communicates much as a typewriter does. Work on this paper has been supported by the Russell Sage Foundation.
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A book-length version of the material is in preparation. Morin, and Clarice Stoll for their useful comments on an earlier version. I have found Newhall and Lyons useful background references. People use typewriters to do a million different jobs: Because of the persistent myth that the camera simply records whatever is in front of it about which I will say more belowpeople often fail to realize that the camera is equally at the disposal of a skilled practitioner and can do any of the above things, in its own way.
Photographers have done all of the things suggested above, often in explicit analogue with the verbal model.
Different kinds of photographers work in different institutional settings and occupational communities, which affect their product as the institutional settings in which sociologists work affect theirs Rosenblum Photographers have worked to produce advertising illustrations.
They have made portraits of the rich and famous, and of ordinary people as well. They have produced pictures for newspapers and magazines. They have produced works of art for galleries, collectors and museums. The constraints of the settings in which they did their work Becker affected how they went about it, their habits of seeing, the pictures they made and, when they looked at society, what they saw, what they made of it and the way they presented their results.
From its beginnings, photography has been used as a tool for the exploration of society, and photographers have taken that as one of their tasks. At first, some photographers used the camera to record far-off societies that their contemporaries would otherwise never see and, later, aspects of their own society their contemporaries had no wish to see.
Sometimes they even conceived of what they were doing as sociology, especially around the turn of the century when sociologists and photographers agreed on the necessity of exposing the evils of society through words and pictures.
Lewis Hine, for instance, was supported by the Russell Sage Foundation in connection with the early surveys of urban life Gutman The American Journal of Sociology routinely ran photographs in connection with its muckraking reformist articles for at least the first fifteen years of its existence Oberschall Another kind of social exploration grew out of the use of photographs to report the news and to record important social events.
Mathew Brady Horan and his staff, which included Timothy H. Later, the Picture Post in England and Time, Life, and Fortune in the United States provided outlets for serious photojournalists who worked with the photoessay form: Eugene Smith, Robert Capa.
Dorothea Lange, Walker Evans, Russell Lee, Arthur Rothstein, and others made it their business to record the poverty and hard times of Depression America, their work very much informed by social science theories of various kinds.
More recently, political involvement has had a hand in shaping the use of photography to explore society. They then used those skills in somewhat less immediately political kinds of essays—exploring communities, occupations, subcultures, institutions—that have a sociological intent.
These essays combine a journalistic and ethnographic style with a self-conscious and deliberate artistic purpose.
Photography from the beginning strove toward art just as it did toward social exploration. To be sure, earlier photographers in this tradition understood that what they did had an artistic component. They worked hard to produce images that measured up as art.
But the artistic element of photography was held at a substantial distance from photography carried on for more mundane purposes, including journalism. Such influential photographers as Edward Weston conceived of their work as something more like painting—they produced for galleries, museums, and private collectors as much as they could—and did very little that could be interpreted in any direct way as an exploration of society.
Art and social exploration describe two ways of working, not two kinds of photographers. Many photographers do both kinds of work in the course of their careers.
And even this is an over-simplification since many photographs made by someone whose work is predominantly of one kind have strong overtones of the other. Photography has thus, like sociology, displayed a shifting variety of characteristic emphases, depending on the currents of interest in the worlds of art, commerce and journalism to which it has been attached.
One continuing emphasis has been the exploration of society in ways more or less connected with somewhat similar explorations undertaken by academic sociologists.Assignment 1 Procedural Email Message Pin It Write a procedural email message to employees reminding them of standard operating procedures or organizational changes that take the form of step-by-step instructions.
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