Historical overview Early history References to mental disorders in early Egyptian, Indian, Greek, and Roman writings show that the physicians and philosophers who contemplated problems of human behaviour regarded mental illnesses as a reflection of the displeasure of the gods or as evidence of demoniac possession. Only a few realized that individuals with mental illnesses should be treated humanely rather than exorcised, punished, or banished. Certain Greek medical writers, however, notably Hippocrates flourished bceregarded mental disorders as diseases to be understood in terms of disturbed physiology. He and his followers emphasized natural causes, clinical observation, and brain pathology.
What is the reason? What are the specific mechanisms at work?
The usual assumption among non-researchers about why diets fail is that when a dieter regains weight, it must be because they stopped dieting, which is in turn attributed to things like not having enough willpower, personal and moral failure, gluttony and laziness, or being too ignorant to know better.
These are assumptions which reflect the mythology of our culture: This story centres the individual, their behaviour, their character traits, and their moral attributes as the cause of fatness in the first place, and the reason why weight is regained following a diet.
But these explanations are not satisfactory to me, nor, as you will see, are they reflected in the scientific literature. To explore other answers, I haphazardly gathered peer-reviewed articles, spanning a range of more than 30 years, that investigated or discussed the various reasons why weight loss produced by dieting is not maintained long-term.
Here is what they theorize about why diets fail.
However, the researchers tended not to lean so heavily on moral explanations for this relapse. One study suggested that the fault lay with lack of scholarly attention to the maintenance phase of behavioural change in designing weight loss plans.
This was further complicated by the fact that no one can avoid eating entirely, which makes dieting quite different from other behavioural interventions like smoking cessation programs and abstinence from alcohol.
Alongside this were proposed cultural and commercial pressures to eat, especially calorie-rich and highly palatable foods. There also appeared to be few natural rewards provided by dieting once the intervention phase ended — apparently nothing, not even thinness, feels as good as food tastes.
The researchers were not very optimistic about the usefulness of dieting if it only resulted in regaining weight. An illuminating quote from the conclusion of one paper: But an interesting quote from this same article hints of more than purely behavioural factors: These habits need not be as bad as pretreatment habits to cause regain, because metabolic factors may make it easier to regain after a period of dietary restriction…The pattern of relapse and regain appears to be the result of a war between the will and physiologic demands over which self-control appears relatively powerless.
Lowered energy expenditure Reduced calorie intake and weight loss, it turns out, cause some interesting changes to the body that result in expending fewer calories.
In animal studieschanges include decreased body temperature, less spontaneous activity, and lowered resting metabolic rate the amount of energy the body uses while at rest. Reduced total energy expenditure and, possibly, lowered resting metabolic rate after diet-induced weight loss have also been observed in humans.
Conversely, humans who gain weight above their baseline weight through eating have been observed to have an increased resting metabolic rate.
A person who gains weight would be expected to expend more energy just due to their increased body mass, thus requiring more energy to physically move and biologically maintain it. The same, but in reverse, is true for someone who loses weight — less energy is required to maintain a smaller body.Results from a new study may lead to approval of what could be the first drug that ameliorates potentially deadly reactions in children with severe peanut allergies.
Adopting a theory of healthy eating is NOT orthorexia. A theory may be conventional or unconventional, extreme or lax, sensible or totally wacky, but, regardless of the details, followers of the theory do not necessarily have orthorexia.
Lighter Than My Shadow [Katie Green] on pfmlures.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A graphic memoir of eating disorders, abuse and recovery. Like most kids.
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(April ) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). Top 50 Emotional Eating Blogs.
1. Life with Cake – Greta Gleissner is a psychotherapist specializing in the treatment of eating disorders. Life with Cake is a personal blog about her recovery from an eating disorder and includes advice about addressing urges to .
PSYCHIATRIC RISK FACTORS. Comorbidity: There are a number of psychiatric disorders, including severe mood disorders and/or Axis II diagnoses that exist along with an eating disorder.
These need to be addressed in therapy at the same time as the eating disorder. Mood Disorders.