Myths and realities of higher education

During that same Census count, the number of Americans falsely claiming to have served in country was: As of the current Census taken during Augustthe surviving U. Vietnam Veteran population estimate is:

Myths and realities of higher education

Afterward, I will add my own comments about additional common EMP myths. HEMP is an acronym for high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse.

Some discussions of HEMP have the right words and concepts, but do not quite have them put together right, or have inaccurate interpretations. Here we will discuss some common misunderstandings. Some general emphasis of comments fall into either "the world as we know it will come to an end" if there is a high altitude nuclear burst, or the other extreme: Since we really have never had a nuclear burst over anything like our current modern infrastructure, no one really knows for sure what would happen, but both extremes are not very believable.

Myths and realities of higher education

The assumption that E1 is an issue only for cold war type situations, but not for terrorists or rogue nations, is false. Very big bombs might have better area coverage of high fields by going to higher burst heights, but for peak fields the burst yield is only a very minor consideration.

However, there are many problems with extrapolating that experience: That was about half a century ago. Since then the use of electronics has increased greatly, and the type of sensitive electronics we currently use did not really exist back then.

In addition, widely separated substations would have been exposed, although with electromechanical relays not solid state. Some say that all vehicles traveling will come to a halt, with all modern vehicles damaged because of their use of modern electronics and one movie even had a bulk, non-electronic part dying.

Most likely there will be some vehicles affected, but probably just a small fraction of them although this could create traffic jams in large cities. A car does not have very long cabling to act as antennas, and there is some protection from metallic construction.

As non-metallic materials are used more and more in the future to decrease weight and increase fuel efficiency, this advantage may disappear.

One movie critic pointed out that electronics in a helicopter were affected, but not the star's electronic watch. A watch is much too small for HEMP to affect it. One critic, with some awareness of the generation process, said that HEMP could not be present unless there were also energetic electrons present.

However for the HEMP, the radiation and energetic electrons are present at altitudes of 20 to 40 km, not at the ground. There is truth to this recommendation if there were a way to know that a burst was about to happen.

Equipment is more vulnerable if it is operating, because some failure modes involving E1 HEMP trigger the system's energy to damage itself. However, damage can also happen, but not as easily, to systems that are turned off.

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There is a suggestion that equipment will be OK if all connected conductors are less than a specific length. Certainly shorter lengths are generally better, but there is no magic length value, with shorter always being better and longer not.

There can be exceptions, such as resonance effects, which depend on line lengths. Stay away from metal: There is a recommendation to be some distance away from any metal when a HEMP event occurs assuming there was warningbecause very high voltages could be generated.

However, the "skin effect" a term not really derived from the skin of humans or any other animal means that if a human were touching a large "antenna" during an E1 HEMP event, any current flow would not penetrate into the body. First, though, allow me to make a brief comment about the awful EMP myths generated by movies and television.

That video is not available to the public. I'll have more to say about popular culture EMP myths toward the bottom of this page. Now, more on these and additional common myths: The E3 component of nuclear EMP, which induces geomagnetic currents in much the same way as a severe solar storm by causing short-term movements or changes in intensity of the earth's magnetic fieldis very roughly proportional to the total energy yield of the weapon.In this series of articles, (see the subject headings below left), we shall be going on a journey.

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