Saul McLeodpublished Depression is a mood disorder which prevents individuals from leading a normal life, at work socially or within their family. Behaviorist Theory Behaviorism emphasizes the importance of the environment in shaping behavior. For example, classical conditioning proposes depression is learned through associating certain stimuli with negative emotional states. Social learning theory states behavior is learned through observation, imitation and reinforcement.
Follow us Overview People are centrally concerned with motivation — how to move themselves or others to act. Everywhere, parents, teachers, coaches, and managers struggle with how to motivate those that they mentor, and individuals struggle to find energy, mobilize effort and persist at the tasks of life and work.
People are often moved by external factors such as reward systems, grades, evaluations, or the opinions they fear others might have of them.
Yet, just as frequently, people are motivated from within, by interests, curiosity, care or abiding values.
These intrinsic motivations are not necessarily externally rewarded or supported, but nonetheless they can sustain passions, creativity, and sustained efforts. The interplay between the extrinsic forces acting on persons and the intrinsic motives and needs inherent in human nature is the territory of Self-Determination Theory.
Self-Determination Theory SDT represents a broad framework for the study of human motivation and personality. SDT articulates a meta-theory for framing motivational studies, a formal theory that defines intrinsic and varied extrinsic sources of motivation, and a description of the respective roles of intrinsic and types of extrinsic motivation in cognitive and social development and in individual differences.
In addition, SDT proposes that the degree to which any of these three psychological needs is unsupported or thwarted within a social context will have a robust detrimental impact on wellness in that setting. The dynamics of psychological need support and need thwarting have been studied within families, classrooms, teams, organizations, clinics, and cultures using specific propositions detailed within SDT.
The SDT framework thus has both broad and behavior-specific implications for understanding practices and structures that enhance versus diminish need satisfaction and the full functioning that follows from it. These many implications are best revealed by the varied papers listed on this website, which range from basic research on motivational micro-processes to applied clinical trials aiming at population outcomes.
It begins with the assumption that people are active organisms, with evolved tendencies toward growing, mastering ambient challenges, and integrating new experiences into a coherent sense of self.
These natural developmental tendencies do not, however, operate automatically, but instead require ongoing social nutriments and supports.
That is, the social context can either support or thwart the natural tendencies toward active engagement and psychological growth, or it can catalyze lack of integration, defense, and fulfillment of need-substitutes. Within SDT, the nutriments for healthy development and functioning are specified using the concept of basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
To the extent that the needs are ongoingly satisfied, people will develop and function effectively and experience wellness, but to the extent that they are thwarted, people will more likely evidence ill-being and non-optimal functioning.
The darker sides of human behavior and experience, such as certain types of psychopathology, prejudice, and aggression are understood in terms of reactions to basic needs having been thwarted, either developmentally or proximally.
Each, therefore, addresses one facet of motivation or personality functioning. CET specifically addresses the effects of social contexts on intrinsic motivation, or how factors such as rewards, interpersonal controls, and ego-involvements impact intrinsic motivation and interest.
CET highlights the critical roles played by competence and autonomy supports in fostering intrinsic motivation, which is critical in education, arts, sport, and many other domains.
The second mini-theory, Organismic Integration Theory OITaddresses the topic of extrinsic motivation in its various forms, with their properties, determinants, and consequences. Broadly speaking, extrinsic motivation is behavior that is instrumental—that aims toward outcomes extrinsic to the behavior itself.
Yet, there are distinct forms of instrumentality, which include external regulation, introjection, identification, and integration. These subtypes of extrinsic motivation are seen as falling along a continuum of internalization. The more internalized the extrinsic motivation, the more autonomous the person will be when enacting the behaviors.
OIT is further concerned with social contexts that enhance or forestall internalization—that is, with what conduces toward people either resisting, partially adopting, or deeply internalizing values, goals, or belief systems.
OIT particularly highlights supports for autonomy and relatedness as critical to internalization. COT describes and assesses three types of causality orientations: BPNT argues that psychological well-being and optimal functioning is predicated on autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
Therefore, contexts that support versus thwart these needs should invariantly impact wellness. The theory argues that all three needs are essential and that if any is thwarted there will be distinct functional costs.
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Because basic needs are universal aspects of functioning, BPNT looks at cross-developmental and cross-cultural settings for validation and refinements. The fifth mini-theory, Goal Contents Theory GCTgrows out of the distinctions between intrinsic and extrinsic goals and their impact on motivation and wellness.
Goals are seen as differentially affording basic need satisfactions and are thus differentially associated with well-being. Relatedness, which has to do with the development and maintenance of close personal relationships such as best friends and romantic partners as well as belonging to groups, is one of the three basic psychological needs.Learn more about what a theory is and how it can be used in psychology.
Menu. 10 Types of Psychological Theories There are many psychology theories, but most can be categorized as one of four key types: A solid scientific education can help you make better sense of what researchers mean when they talk about scientific research as well.
ACUPOINT STIMULATION IN TREATING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS: EVIDENCE OF EFFICACY David Feinstein, Ph.D. Ashland, Oregon Abstract Energy psychology is a clinical and self-help modality that combines verbal and physical.
A listing of psychological research being conducted online. ACUPOINT STIMULATION IN TREATING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS: EVIDENCE OF EFFICACY David Feinstein, Ph.D.
Ashland, Oregon Abstract Energy psychology is a clinical and self-help modality that combines verbal and physical. To a perfectly logical and rational mind, therefore, the unconscious is just a lot of nonsense.
Persons of this persuasion can often be found telling others to “stop crying—just pull yourself up by your own bootstraps and get on with life.”. A Theory-Theory in general is thus a proposal to explain a certain psychological capacity in terms of a tacit or explicit internally represented theory of a domain.
The Theory-Theory of concepts, however, goes beyond the mere claim that we possess such theories, saying in addition that some or all of our concepts are constituted by their.