References and Further Reading 1.
Felicity in itself has no single conception that is shared by all human beings, but more so, it is for the continual satisfaction in which individuals differ in their wants and desires. In the pursuit of felicity as it is conceived here, it is the natural state of man to exercise his right i. Without having a common conception of felicity in the state of nature, man evokes his own state of happiness as his own conscience dictates it to be.
In this primitive state, there are no common rules for that which is right or that which is wrong. Problems arise when different individuals want the same thing e.
In situations such as these, the possibility of conflict manifesting itself is inevitable, and if considered to be an appropriate way, this act gives way to the use of violence as being an appropriate way for any man to achieve his goals.
Even by the weakest of men. In this pre-political state of man, the individual is solely dependent on his own physical and intellectual abilities for the sake of his self-preservation: It is only through the establishment of a commonwealth that the essence of civilisation can be properly attained.
In the natural state of war: In doing so he finds himself in a state of perpetual competition with his fellow opponents desiring the same things. In the resolution of conflict, the fear of death is the key motive for establishing peace. With this in mind, Hobbes proposes that it is in our own self-interest to make a covenant or contract with the aim in preserving peace and respecting human life.
This of course would mean the abandonment of the state of nature. People would agree to trust the judgements of an agreed person or assembly of people, who in return could offer a more secure and substantial way of living than that of the savage free-for-all of the state of nature.
The sovereign himself would enable people to freely trade, travel and form associations within limits. They would not only be protected from the threat of violent attacks, but would be involved in political life primarily through obedience to the institution of the commonwealth Civitas, on which the sovereign power is conferred by the consent of the people assembled.
It is this rational pursuit of self-preservation through the establishment of peace that leads men to form commonwealths. In the case of a commonwealth existing by form of institution, a multitude of men subject themselves to a chosen sovereign out of fear of death.
One in which envelops a greater degree of security and respect for human life. If the commonwealth is formed by no other means than that of violence, then it has been formed by acquisition. In this fearful way, men subject themselves to a sovereign, out of a fear of the sovereign himself.
In contrast of these two different kinds of commonwealth, the rights of the sovereign can never be affected: They alone are the essence of all his actions. In the social contract, the Roman Catholic Church refused to associate itself with any form of state sovereignty. In doing this, the church separated itself from the state.
In church doctrine, there can only be two supreme sovereigns; one being God, the immortal and supreme sovereign, and the other being the Pope. This meant that the Pope himself was party to no other sovereign than that of God himself, in whom all things were created.
Although, the sovereign in himself is not a party to the covenant, his sovereignty derives from it. From this there are no covenants between himself and his subjects. In the case of the sovereign being an individual or assembly of individuals, his power is absolute.
All power of judgement and legislation are invested in him, as he has: It is through fear of the sovereign that his subjects trust each other, for he fears no one. The sovereign can never be executed, not even by those who are subject to him. It would be more of a significance to say that the natural state of man is one of good and evil.
Man naturally progresses himself through his own natural ability in the light of his own self-awareness. And it is through his ability to do so, that he gradually comes to an awareness of his self-ignorance. Although, there is a strong necessity for law and order in any given form of society, there is also the need of an awareness to that of the natural good of people: Yet, it is essential to acknowledge that Leviathan has to be one of the most influential pieces of political documentation ever written in the history of humankind.
Later on philosophers such as John Locke and Jacques Rousseau, in their own unique and personal ways, redeemed man from this pre-primitive state of brutal existence portrayed by Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan.Although the antecedents of social contract theory are found in antiquity, in Greek and Stoic philosophy and Roman and Canon Law, the heyday of the social contract was the midth to early 19th centuries, when it emerged as the leading doctrine of political legitimacy.
Biology: Biology, study of living things and their vital processes that deals with all the physicochemical aspects of life. Modern principles of other fields, such as chemistry, medicine, and physics, for example, are integrated with those of biology in areas such as biochemistry, biomedicine, and biophysics.
(¶1) Social science alters peoples lives. Politicians argue about the ideas that social scientists make, and legislation and policies are shaped by those ideas. “Contractarianism” names both a political theory of the legitimacy of political authority and a moral theory about the origin or legitimate content of moral norms.
Books. Leviathan (Hobbes book), a book of political philosophy by Thomas Hobbes; Leviathan (Auster novel), a novel by Paul Auster; Leviathan (Westerfeld novel), a novel by Scott Westerfeld; Leviathan, a novel in The Illuminatus!Trilogy by Robert Anton Wilson and Robert Shea; Leviathan: The .
The 17 th Century English philosopher Thomas Hobbes is now widely regarded as one of a handful of truly great political philosophers, whose masterwork Leviathan rivals in significance the political writings of Plato, Aristotle, Locke, Rousseau, Kant, and Rawls. Hobbes is famous for his early and elaborate development of what has come to be known as “social contract theory.