Gender differences in humans Natural differences exist between the sexes base on biological and anatomic factors, most notably differing reproductive roles. Biological differences include chromosomes and hormonal differences.
Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time. We all conduct our lives — choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others — based on theories about why and how things happen in the world.
From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social and physical world that makes it understandable. Every action, every choice about what to do, is based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences.
Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously. Analytical Task The general analytical problem.
In this and other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and men dress differently.
Our analytical task this week is to attempt a "simple" causal analysis of a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress. The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about causality.
To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of causes based on varied ways of framing the causal question.
Realistically, one could easily write a book about all the possible ways of interpreting this causal question and answering it.
We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in a couple pages. The starting point of most causal analyses is a comparison.
When we start with the general question "what causes X? Examples of such questions might be "why do people in group A do X more than those in group B? If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in the likelihood of X or the rate of X, and look for potential causes that 1 vary across the relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and 2 that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way.
For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to better specify the question and look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to the expectations for dressing differently?
Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to act in a similar way.
Figuring out what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation. Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing.
And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Here the basic comparison is between people who conform and those who do not, or between the reactions of people to conformity and nonconformity.
What causes differences in dress "codes" across cultures? What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in modes of dress? The clothing characteristic of each sex varies greatly across societies and time.
Clothing differs between "primitive" cultures and modern ones, between warm and cold climates, and between different parts of the world. But seemingly everywhere men and women dress differently.
How can we explain this pattern? Here the primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing. Why do the expectations about clothing differences vary by context?
Why are gender differences in dress greater in some circumstances than in others? For example, both women and men may wear similar coveralls in a factory, but women and men generally wear dramatically different clothing to formal dances.
Our efforts to find causes behind any phenomena are improved by looking at variations. If male and female clothing is just a little different in some contexts but greatly different in others, we can usefully focus on what might produce this variance in gender differences.
Here the primary comparison is between contexts with greater differences in the expected clothing and contexts with lesser differences. While considering how to explain the differences in the ways women and men dress, it can also be helpful to think through ways that this pattern could be considered an example of a larger pattern.
The explanation for the broader pattern may be different or easier to develop.Through a historically grounded conceptual framework that explains the presence and reproduction of social stratification and social inequality, [Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society] analyzes the four major American classes (upper class, middle class, working class, and the poor), identifies the major historical events that have influenced contemporary social inequality.
The social construction of gender is a notion in feminism and sociology about the operation of gender and gender differences in societies. According to this view, society and culture create gender roles, and these roles are prescribed as ideal or appropriate behavior for a person of that specific sex..
Some supporters of this idea argue that the . Log in or register to find out your implicit associations about race, gender, sexual orientation, and other topics! All workers’ wages—regardless of gender or race—have failed to rise in tandem with productivity: Hourly median wage growth by gender, race, and ethnicity, compared with economy-wide productivity growth, – Closing the gender wage gap would cut poverty among working women and their families by more than half and add $ billion to the national economy.
Women may not reach pay parity until and for women of color it's even worse: Hispanic women may wait until ; Black women may wait until for equal pay. Academic Exchange Quarterly Summer ISSN Volume 8, Issue 2.
M odified Monopoly: A Simulation Game for Experiencing Social Class Inequality. Morten G. Ender, United States Military Academy.
Morten Ender is the Sociology Program Director in the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership at West Point.
He earned is Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Maryland.